By Heimo Uhrmann, Robert Kolm, Horst Zimmermann
Ranging from the fundamentals of analog filters and the negative transistor features in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters built by means of the authors in one hundred twenty nm and sixty five nm CMOS are defined commonly. between them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and lively filters for system-on-chip consciousness for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE functions. For the energetic filters a number of operational amplifier designs are defined. The publication, additionally, incorporates a evaluate of the latest kingdom of analysis on low-voltage low-power analog filters. to hide the subject of the publication comprehensively, linearization concerns and dimension tools for the characterization of complex analog filters are brought moreover. various complex illustrations advertise a simple comprehension. This booklet should be of price to engineers and researchers in in addition to scientists and Ph.D scholars at universities. The e-book is additionally recommendable to graduate scholars specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics or circuit engineering.
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Extra info for Analog Filters in Nanometer CMOS (Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics)
To insure that the bulk-source and bulk-drain pn junctions are reverse biased, the bulk must be connected to VDD for the pMOS transistor. A transistor works in the triode region, when it is used as a switch. 4 Common-Mode Feedback Loop In a fully differential design a common-mode feedback (CMFB) loop is required to stabilize the common-mode voltage. In principle this stabilization can be done in the discrete time domain or in the continuous-time domain. The main advantage of a sampled CMFB is that the power consumption is quite low.
The contacts connect the salicide to the metal layer 1 (M1). Metal M1 to M4 are 1x thin metal layers, which are connected by the vias V1 to V3. Via V0_2B connects 1x thin metal M4 to thick metal (2x) M1_2B. And finally Via V0_4B contacts the last copper metal layer M1_4B, which is a 4x thick metal layer. In total there exist 6 copper metal layers. The last metal layer LB is used for wiring and wirebonding. Metal LB is an aluminum wire level and is connected to M1_4B by the via VV. For bondpads the oxide and nitride film is opened as well as the polyimide passivation layer .
9 dB gain. 5 dBm) for the case with maximum gain. √ The simulated output√spectral noise density is 63 nV/ Hz for the case with minimum gain and 89 nV/ Hz for the case of maximum gain. 5 the total integrated noise for the different filter configurations are presented. 6 summarizes the measured results from the realized chip. 3 Realized Gm -C Filter 3 In this chip  no push-pull stage at the output of the OTA was used (see Fig. 23). So the current consumption is reduced because one stage less is used.
Analog Filters in Nanometer CMOS (Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics) by Heimo Uhrmann, Robert Kolm, Horst Zimmermann