By Adam Schwarz
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Extra info for A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia's Search for Stability
The 1982 elections went far smoother for Soebarto than the previous two poXls. Allegations of vote-rigging were less pronounced and Golkar's share of the ballot rose to 64 per cent. The following year, Soeharto was appointed to a fourth term by an ever mre quiescent People" Assembly. In 1984, Soeharto decreed that all social-political organisations, including the civilian political parties, must declare Pancasila as their sole ideology, or asas tunggal, It was a particularly unwelcome development for the Muslim-linked United Devetogment Parry representing, as it did, an exclamation point to the defeat suffered by Mudirn groups in the ideological battles of the 1950s.
In August I965 Sukamo" health worsened, an event which seems to have sparked the last fatal crack in his governing coalition. Less than two months later came the abortive coup which marked the: beginning af the end of the Old Order. Why did Guided Democracy follow parliamentary democracy into the dustbin of history? 40 Soeharto has avoided this pitfall, at Xeast so far. Rather than juggling together what he perceived as incompatible social forces under civilian leadership, Soeharto enormously strengthened the power of the state, made the military the pre-eminent political institution and distanced from power those not willing to play along with the new rules of the game.
Others criticised the business dealings of Soehartok children, several of which have built up enormous business empires in the spaee of less than ten years. Also in 1993, the government" repeated attempts to meddle in the election for a new chairman of the Indonesian Democratic Party not only hckfired but left the government looking badly out of toucfi with grassroots pressure for more democratisation.
A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia's Search for Stability by Adam Schwarz